Types of irrigation

Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation is an ancient form of irrigation that has been in use for thousands of years. Surface (or flood,) irrigation systems let water flow over agricultural lands to wet them, and infiltrate the soil. Surface irrigation can also be subdivided as furrow or border strip irrigation. Flood irrigation is when the irrigation causes flooding or very near flooding to the cultivated ground.

If the water level from the irrigation source allows, dikes are used to control the levels. Usually, these dikes have been plugged with soil. This is commonly seen in terraced fields of rice (or rice paddies), where the method can be used to flood the individual fields or control their level. In some instances, the water may be pumped to bring it down to the level of the land. The surface irrigation method has a lower water use efficiency than other forms.



Micro-irrigation also known as targeted irrigation, lower volume irrigation or drip irrigation is where water is distributed in a predetermined manner through a network piped under low pressure. This is applied as a small drop to each plant. This group includes drip irrigation using individual emitters and subsurface drip irrigation.


Drip irrigation

Drip (or micro), irrigation is also known as trickle irrigation. It works just like its name says. This system delivers water drop by drop at the root zone. Drop by drop water is delivered to the root zone of the plants. This method of irrigation is water-efficient and can save you water. Field water efficiency for drip irrigation is usually between 80 and 90 percent if it’s done correctly.

Drip irrigation is commonly used to water crops in modern agriculture. Fertilization describes this process.


Sprinkler irrigation

Sprinkler or overhead irrigation involves water being piped to one of several central locations in the field. This water is then distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers, guns, or guns. Solid-set irrigation supplies mean a system that has sprinklers or sprays attached to permanently mounted risers. Rotors are high-pressure sprinklers that rotate. They can be driven either by a ball, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors may be designed to spin in a circle or a part of it.

Sprinklers can also attach to moving platforms by connecting to the water source with a line. The traveling sprinklers are an automatic, wheeled system known as traveling sprinklers. These systems can be used unattended to irrigate small farms and sports fields, parks, pastures, cemeteries, and other areas. These systems use a long length of polyethylene tubing wound to a drum of steel. The sprinkler will be pulled across the field by the tubing being wound on the drum-driven either by an irrigation water pump or a small engine powered by a small gasoline engine. The sprinkler will stop when it arrives back at its reel. This system is often called a “water reel”, or traveling irrigation sprinkler.

Other travelers use a flat hose made of rubber that is pulled behind the sprinkler platform by a cable.


Center pivot

Center pivot irrigation can be described as a sprinkler irrigation method that involves several sections of pipe (usually galvanized, or aluminum) that are joined together. Trusses support the segments and are supported by trusses. These towers are mounted on wheels with sprinklers running along their length. The system moves in a circular manner and water is supplied from the pivot at the center. These systems can be found worldwide and can be used to irrigate all types of terrain. These systems are more modern and include drop sprinkler heads, as seen in the image.


Side roll, wheel line, and wheel move are all methods of irrigation.

A series of pipes are connected with sprinklers on their length and each has a wheel measuring approximately 1.5 m in diameter. A large hose provides water to one end. Once irrigation has been sufficient, the hose is removed. Water is then drained from the system and the whole assembly is rolled by hand, or with a purpose-built machine, so sprinklers can move to a different spot on the field. The hose should be connected again. The whole process is repeated until the field has been irrigated.

The pipe doubles up as a water transport channel and an axle for all the wheels. The drive system is often found at the center of the wheel lines. It turns the clamped-together sections of the pipe into a single axle and then rolls the entire line. If the system becomes unaligned, it may be necessary to manually adjust each wheel position.

Wheel line systems have a limited capacity for carrying water and a limited range of crop heights that can be irrigated. One of the best features of a lateral moving system is its ability to easily be disconnected and adjust to field shape while it is being moved. They are most commonly used in small, rectilinear areas with oddly-shaped fields.

Hose-end sprinklers

There are many different types of hose-end sprinklers. Many of them work with standard garden-hose hoses. Some have a spiked foundation that allows them to be temporarily anchored in the ground while others are designed to be pulled along with the garden hose.